top of page

The Secret to Masterful DMing - improvising, comedy and drama

Updated: Feb 13


One of the most important aspects of a successful game run is having a well-planned adventure. This means not only coming up with a compelling story but also populating it with interesting NPCs and challenging encounters. Using resources like the D&D Villain plus Adventure: The Dark Knight, a collection of pre-written adventures that can easily be customized to suit your campaign, or exploring the 18 D&D Scholar Backgrounds for characters who bring a depth of knowledge to the game can be incredibly helpful. Additionally, bringing your D&D world to life through immersive descriptions and engaging NPCs can make all the difference. Don't be afraid to use your imagination and add your own unique flair to your game. Looking for adventure hooks? Check out these 10 D&D Underdark Adventure Hooks or learn how to create D&D plot twists that will keep your players on their toes with this article on how to create D&D plot twists.

However, planning and preparation are only one part of the formula, the ability of the DM to improvise during the game session is an essential gameplay tool to prevent a stagnant, formulaic session from occurring. This article is all about developing the adventure on the fly and adding spontaneity and creativity, (and it's also a bit about the pros and cons of doing silly voices too, but more on that later).

Improvisation is a crucial skill for Dungeon Masters to have, especially when the unexpected happens during a game. It can be easy to get bogged down in the details of a planned adventure and forget to be flexible when players take the story in a different direction. That's where improvisation comes in - the ability to think on your feet and adapt to changing circumstances can take your game from good to great.

One easy way to incorporate improvisation into your game is by taking inspiration from theatre and comedy. In both of these disciplines, performers are constantly thinking on their feet and adapting to changing situations. By applying some of these same techniques to your game, you can elevate your Dungeon Mastering skills and provide a better experience for your players.

One great example of this is the use of "Yes, and..." This is a principle from improvisational comedy that encourages performers to accept whatever their scene partner offers and build upon it. The same can be applied in D&D - when a player suggests something unexpected, instead of shutting it down, try saying "Yes, and..." and build upon it to see where it takes the story.

Another technique to try is using the terrain effects and action point markers. In real-time strategy games, players have to take into account various factors, such as terrain and resources, to win battles. You can apply the same principle in D&D by using terrain effects to create challenging encounters. For example, a battle fought on a hillside could have advantages for archers but hinder melee fighters. Using action point markers can also make combat more dynamic by allowing players to perform special moves or gain bonuses.

Another way to incorporate improvisation into your game is by creating an army of minions. Instead of having a single powerful enemy, try having a group of weaker enemies that players have to face all at once. This can lead to unexpected twists and turns in the story and make combat more interesting.

Another good rule of thumb when it comes to improvisation is to be prepared (a paradox, I know, but it works). Having a GM binder or DM binder filled with pre-written encounters, magic items, and sections of a keep can make it easier to adapt to unexpected player decisions. Additionally, having a list of names and personalities for NPCs can make it easier to create compelling characters on the fly.

Finally, don't forget about the role-playing aspect of the game. Single character subplots, as well as overarching plotlines, can add depth to your game and create memorable moments for players. Critical Role, a popular actual play web series, is a great example of the power of role-playing games to tell compelling stories.

Here are three simple devices that illustrate these points:

  1. Create a Deceptive NPC: As a DM, you can create an NPC who appears friendly and helpful to the players, but is actually working against them. For example, a kindly old wizard who offers to help the party find a rare magic item may actually be working for the BBEG and leading the party into a trap. This can add a layer of complexity to the game and keep players on their toes.

  2. Use Terrain Effects: Terrain effects can add a lot of depth to combat encounters. For example, if the players are fighting in a forest, the DM can add in difficult terrain, cover, and hazards like falling branches or quicksand. This forces players to think creatively and use the environment to their advantage, rather than simply relying on their character's abilities.

  3. Incorporate Plot Twists: Plot twists can keep the game fresh and exciting. For example, the players may be hired to rescue a kidnapped noble, only to discover that the noble is actually working with the BBEG and the players have been unwittingly helping the villain all along. This can create a moral dilemma for the players and force them to reevaluate their actions and allegiances.

Active Listening

As a Dungeon Master, it's important to understand that active listening is key to running a successful D&D game. It's not enough to just understand the rules of the game; a good DM must be able to listen to their players and adapt their game to suit the players' needs. By doing this, the DM can create a more engaging and satisfying gaming experience for the entire party.

Active listening involves more than just hearing what the players are saying. It also involves paying attention to their body language, their tone of voice, and their overall demeanour. By doing this, the DM can better understand what the players are feeling and adjust the game accordingly. For example, if a player seems disinterested in the current plot hook, the DM can adjust the story to better suit the player's interests.

One of the best ways to actively listen to your players is to keep an open mind. As a DM, you may have a specific idea of how the game should play out, but it's important to remember that the players are the main characters in the game. By keeping an open mind, you allow the players to drive the story and take the game in unexpected directions. This can lead to some of the most exciting and memorable moments in the game.

Another important aspect of active listening is being able to take feedback from your players. This can be a great way to improve your DM skills and make the game more enjoyable for everyone involved. Whether it's positive feedback on a particular encounter or constructive criticism on a house rule, being open to feedback is a good way to become a better DM.

Active listening is not always easy and can take a great deal of work, especially for new Dungeon Masters. But by mastering this skill, you can take your D&D game to the next level. Listening to your players, taking feedback, and adapting your game accordingly can lead to a more engaging and satisfying gaming experience for everyone involved.

In conclusion, the Monster Manual and the Dungeon Master's Guide can provide useful information, and premade adventures can be a good way to get started, but the most important thing for a good DM is the ability to actively listen to their players. By paying attention to their wants, needs, and concerns, a DM can tailor their game to better suit their players' preferences. This can help create a better gaming experience for everyone involved and take the game of dungeons and dragons to a whole new level.

Encouraging Player Input

Giving players agency in the game world is an excellent way to make your D&D game more collaborative and engaging. As a DM, you can encourage player input in various ways. One way to do this is by asking your players to help you create non-player characters (NPCs), which can add depth to your game world. Another way is to have players design a town or city that they will be visiting during the game. This can provide them with a sense of ownership and investment in the world they are playing in.

As a DM, it is essential to remember that D&D is a game for everyone at the table, not just the DM. Encouraging player input and agency can lead to a more fun and engaging experience for all. When players feel invested in the game world, they are more likely to become invested in the story and the characters they play.

There are many ways to encourage player input, such as asking players to come up with a plot hook or side quest for their characters. Players can also be asked to come up with magical items or house rules that can add unique flavor to the game. Additionally, having players help create the story or setting can help ease the burden of creating an entire campaign alone.

Another way to encourage player input is to allow them to control some of the action. For example, you can have players describe the actions of their characters during combat, rather than simply rolling dice. This can add a layer of immersion and allow players to feel like they are contributing to the game world in a meaningful way.

In summary, encouraging player input is a fantastic way to elevate your DM game. Not only does it create a more collaborative and engaging experience for everyone, but it also takes some of the pressure off the DM. With the right encouragement and structure, players can contribute to the game world in meaningful ways, leading to a more memorable and enjoyable experience for all.

Here are five ways to help develop player input during the session:

  1. Session Zero: Conducting a Session Zero with your players is a great way to establish expectations and get input from your players. During this session, you can discuss topics like character creation, house rules, and campaign themes. This will allow your players to feel invested in the game world and give them a sense of ownership over their characters.

  2. Collaborative Worldbuilding: Collaborative worldbuilding is a technique where players work with the DM to build the game world. This can be done in a variety of ways, such as by creating NPCs, designing a town or city, or coming up with a side quest. This not only gives players a sense of investment in the game world but can also help to reduce the workload on the DM.

  3. In-Game Surveys: In-game surveys are a great way to get feedback from your players about their experience. You can ask them about what they like, what they don't like, and what they want to see more of in the game. This will help you tailor your game to your players' preferences and make the experience more enjoyable for everyone.

  4. One-on-One Sessions: One-on-one sessions with your players can be a great way to get their input and give them a chance to shine. By focusing on a single character, you can give them more attention and create a more personalized experience. This can help to develop the player's character and deepen their investment in the game.

  5. Open-Ended Questions: Finally, using open-ended questions is a great way to encourage player input. Instead of asking yes or no questions, ask your players questions that require a more detailed response. For example, instead of asking "Do you want to investigate the room?" ask "What do you want to do in the room?" This will encourage your players to be more creative and engage more deeply with the game world.

Comedy and Drama

Comedy and drama are two powerful tools that a DM can use to add depth and richness to their game world and characters. Comedy can provide moments of levity and relief, helping players feel more invested in their characters and the game itself. Meanwhile, drama can add weight and seriousness to the story, drawing players in and keeping them engaged.

For example, you might introduce a bumbling yet lovable NPC who provides comic relief. This character could be a recurring figure who pops up in unexpected ways, providing a source of amusement and distraction from the more serious aspects of the game. Alternatively, you might create a tragic backstory for a major villain that makes them more sympathetic. By giving the players a reason to care about the villain, you can create a more compelling narrative that keeps them engaged and invested.

As a DM, it's important to find the right balance between comedy and drama. Too much of one or the other can throw off the tone of the game and make it difficult for players to take the story seriously. However, when used appropriately, these tools can help take your game to the next level.

When using comedy and drama, it's important to consider the preferences of your group of players. Some players may prefer a more serious, dramatic game, while others may be more interested in comedic moments. By actively listening to your players, you can tailor your game to better suit their needs and create a more enjoyable experience for everyone.

Ultimately, the key to using comedy and drama effectively is to create a world and characters that feel real and three-dimensional. By investing time in creating detailed backstories and personalities for your NPCs and villains, you can create a game world that feels rich and immersive. This will help players feel more connected to the game and invested in the story, leading to a more rewarding gaming experience for everyone involved.

Here are some examples of how incorporating comedy and drama can work in gameplay:

  • Introducing a comedic NPC: Let's say the players are embarking on a quest to retrieve a powerful magical artifact, but to get to it they have to navigate a treacherous swamp. Along the way, they stumble across a goblin who is hopelessly lost and has been wandering the swamp for days. The goblin, who speaks with a hilariously exaggerated accent, is both terrified of the swamp and comically inept at navigating it. The players might choose to help the goblin, or they might leave him to his fate, but either way the encounter adds a lighthearted moment to an otherwise tense and dangerous journey.

  • Creating a tragic villain: A major villain in your game might have a tragic backstory that makes them more complex and nuanced. Perhaps the villain was once a hero who was betrayed by someone they trusted, or maybe they are seeking revenge for a past wrong that they feel was never made right. By adding depth to the villain's motivations and backstory, you can make them more sympathetic and give the players a reason to care about defeating them beyond just stopping their evil plans.

  • Blending comedy and drama in the same encounter: An encounter doesn't have to be entirely comedic or dramatic - you can blend the two to create something unique and memorable. For example, the players might come across a group of goblins who are arguing over who gets to keep a shiny object they've found. As the players approach, the goblins become hostile and a battle ensues. During the fight, the players might discover that the shiny object is actually a powerful magical artifact that the goblins have no idea how to use. This adds a comedic element to the encounter, but also raises questions about how the goblins came into possession of the artifact in the first place.

Here are five more examples of how DMs can incorporate elements of comedy and drama into their games:

  1. Use NPCs with quirks and eccentricities: NPCs with quirks and eccentricities can add comedic relief and depth to your game world. For example, you might have an NPC who is always cracking terrible jokes, or an eccentric wizard who insists on speaking in rhyme.

  2. Create interesting rivalries: Rivalries between NPCs or even between PCs can add an element of drama to your game. For example, you might have a pair of NPCs who are bitter rivals, or two PCs who are competing for the same magical item.

  3. Include moral dilemmas: Moral dilemmas can add depth to your game and encourage players to think about the consequences of their actions. For example, you might present your players with a situation where they must choose between two morally ambiguous options.

  4. Use music and sound effects: Music and sound effects can add a lot of emotional depth to your game. For example, you might use tense music during combat encounters or sad music during emotional moments.

  5. Have NPCs change over time: Having NPCs change and grow over time can add a lot of depth to your game world. For example, you might have an NPC who starts out as an antagonist but becomes an ally over time, or an NPC who starts out as friendly but becomes more distant as the story progresses.

Practice Flexibility and Adaptability

In D&D, there are countless variables that can come into play, from unpredictable player choices to random dice rolls. As such, even the best-laid plans can go awry. A good DM is one who is able to roll with the punches and adjust their game accordingly.

Flexibility and adaptability can take many forms in D&D. For example, if a player unexpectedly decides to go off-script and pursue a different path than what you had planned, a flexible DM might adjust their plans to accommodate the new direction. Or, if a group of players suddenly decide to split up and pursue individual objectives, an adaptable DM might create separate scenes for each group that allow them to progress their storylines independently.

Another key aspect of flexibility and adaptability is being able to think on your feet. Sometimes, unexpected challenges arise that require quick thinking and creative problem-solving. For instance, if a player rolls a natural 20 on a persuasion check and convinces an NPC to do something unexpected, a good DM might come up with a new storyline or quest that incorporates this development.

Remaining calm and focused in the face of adversity is also crucial for DMs. Unexpected challenges and difficult players can be frustrating, but getting angry or flustered will only make the situation worse. A good DM knows how to keep their cool and work through challenges with a level head.

Overall, practicing flexibility and adaptability is essential for any DM who wants to provide a good gaming experience. By being open-minded, quick-thinking, and calm under pressure, a DM can keep their players engaged and invested in the game, no matter what surprises may arise.

Here are three examples of nimble DM thinking

  1. Unexpected player actions: Let's say your players are on a mission to retrieve a valuable artifact from a heavily guarded castle. You've planned out the guards' movements and security measures, but your players throw you a curveball and decide to sneak into the castle through the sewers. As a DM, you'll need to quickly adjust your plans, rework the encounters and obstacles, and come up with new challenges for the players to face.

  2. Technical difficulties: In today's virtual tabletop gaming world, technical difficulties can often arise during a session. Perhaps your internet connection is unstable, and your video or audio cuts out mid-game. Or maybe one of your players' computers crashes, and they're unable to participate. As a DM, you'll need to be quick to improvise and find a workaround, such as pausing the game while you troubleshoot, switching to an audio-only format, or having the players carry on without the affected player.

  3. Unexpected plot twists: D&D is a game where players have agency, and their decisions can lead to unexpected plot twists. For example, let's say the players discover that their trusted NPC guide is actually a double agent working for the main villain. This revelation could completely change the direction of the campaign, and as a DM, you'll need to adapt your plans accordingly. You might need to create new encounters, adjust the motivations and actions of the villain, or come up with new plot hooks to keep the players engaged.

Foster a Positive Game Culture

As a DM, one of the most important roles you play is that of a community builder. Creating a positive game culture means setting the tone for your D&D game and modelling the kind of behavior you want to see in your players. This will reap massive gameplay rewards, as we shall discover

Here are some ways you can foster a positive game culture:

  • First and foremost, create a safe and inclusive environment. Make sure all players feel welcome and respected, regardless of their gender, race, sexual orientation, or any other identifying characteristic. Be aware of your own biases and work to create a space that is free of discrimination or harassment.

  • Encourage kindness and good sportsmanship. This means congratulating players when they succeed, even if it's at the expense of your own carefully laid plans. It also means being gracious in defeat and avoiding taking out your frustration on your players.

  • Be willing to listen to feedback and make changes. If a player comes to you with a concern, take it seriously and work with them to find a solution that works for everyone. Being open to feedback and willing to make changes will help create a more collaborative and supportive game environment.

  • Lead by example. As the DM, you set the tone for the game. Model the kind of behavior you want to see in your players. If you want your players to be respectful and kind to each other, make sure you're doing the same.

  • Incorporate diversity and representation in your game. Make sure your game world reflects the diversity of the real world. Include NPCs with a variety of backgrounds, genders, and races. Incorporate storylines that explore social issues or themes of diversity and inclusion. By doing so, you can create a game that is both entertaining and thought-provoking.

  • Overall, creating a positive game culture takes effort and intentionality. By being aware of your own biases and actively working to create a welcoming and supportive environment, you can help ensure that everyone has a good time and feels valued and respected.

Fostering a positive game culture is a crucial aspect of the power of improvisation in dungeon mastering because it creates a welcoming and safe space for players to engage in collaborative storytelling. Improvisation is all about adapting to unexpected situations, being flexible, and building off of the ideas and contributions of others. In order for improvisation to be successful, players need to feel comfortable sharing their ideas and taking risks without fear of judgment or exclusion.

By fostering a positive game culture, DMs can create an environment where players feel supported and respected, which encourages them to contribute more freely and take risks with their characters and their storytelling.

This, in turn, leads to more improvisation and collaboration within the game, which can lead to some truly amazing and memorable moments.

Furthermore, fostering a positive game culture can also help to address issues of representation and inclusivity within the game. By actively working to create an inclusive environment and welcoming players of all backgrounds and experiences, DMs can help to address the inherent biases and exclusionary tendencies that can sometimes be present in tabletop gaming.

Overall, fostering a positive game culture is a key aspect of the power of improvisation in dungeon mastering because it creates the conditions necessary for players to engage in collaborative storytelling and improvise in the moment.

By creating a safe, inclusive, and welcoming environment, DMs can encourage players to take risks and contribute to the game, which can lead to some truly amazing and memorable moments.

Here are three examples of how fostering a positive game culture can enhance the power of improvisation in a D&D game:

  1. Inclusive storytelling: When players feel safe and valued, they may be more likely to share their ideas and participate in the storytelling process. This can lead to a more collaborative and diverse story that incorporates the perspectives and experiences of all players. As a DM, you can encourage inclusivity by actively listening to your players and incorporating their ideas into the game, while also being mindful of any harmful or exclusionary content.

  2. Supportive feedback: When players feel encouraged and supported, they may be more likely to take risks and try new things in the game. As a DM, you can foster a positive game culture by offering supportive feedback and constructive criticism, while also celebrating players' successes and creativity. This can help build confidence and inspire players to take on new challenges, which can lead to exciting and unexpected improvisation in the game.

  3. Respectful conflict resolution: Inevitably, conflicts and disagreements may arise during a D&D game, and it's important to handle them in a respectful and constructive manner. By fostering a positive game culture that emphasizes respect and good sportsmanship, you can help create a safe space for players to address conflicts and find mutually agreeable solutions. This can help prevent conflicts from escalating and derailing the game, while also encouraging improvisation and creative problem-solving.


In conclusion, the power of improvisation is a crucial skill for any Dungeon Master to master. By incorporating techniques from theatre and comedy into their game, DMs can elevate their game and create memorable experiences for their players.

Active listening, player input, comedy and drama, flexibility, and positive game culture are all important aspects of this skill.

Listening to your players' feedback and incorporating it into your game can make all the difference in creating a more engaging experience. Encouraging player input and collaboration allows for a more inclusive and dynamic world, while comedy and drama can add depth and nuance to your characters and storylines.

Being flexible and adaptable is essential, as unexpected challenges and surprises are inevitable in any game. And fostering a positive game culture promotes respect, kindness, and inclusivity, creating a welcoming environment for all players to enjoy.

Ultimately, the power of improvisation allows DMs to respond creatively and confidently to unexpected situations, creating a more immersive and enjoyable experience for all involved. By embracing these techniques and cultivating a mindset of flexibility and creativity, any DM can become a great DM, providing unforgettable adventures for their players to enjoy for years to come.

Explore more of the Arcverse here:

🛍️ Shop: Get your hands on the Arclander Zine, cool battle maps, and more exclusive gaming accessories.

📚 Web Novel: Immerse yourself in our captivating web novel, "A Fire in the Heart of Knowing."

🎲 GM Tips: Master your game with expert tips and guidance for Game Masters of all levels.

🌍 World Building Advice: Create immersive worlds with our expert advice on crafting rich and engaging settings.

🌟 News from the Arcverse: Stay updated with the latest stories, adventures, and content from the Arcverse universe.

📖 Articles You Might Enjoy: Discover a curated selection of our most popular and intriguing articles, handpicked just for you.

Recent Posts

See All


Rated 0 out of 5 stars.
No ratings yet

Add a rating
bottom of page