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D&D Hit Points (HP)

Hit Points (HP)


In Dungeons & Dragons, Hit Points (HP) represent a character's vitality and resilience—the amount of damage they can withstand before falling unconscious or dying. A character's hit points are determined by their class, level, and Constitution modifier.

In-Depth Explanation

A character starts their adventuring life with a maximum number of hit points (HP), which is determined by their chosen class's hit die (a type of dice associated with each class) and their Constitution modifier. For instance, a 1st-level Fighter (who has a d10 hit die) with a Constitution modifier of +2 starts with 12 hit points.

As the character levels up, they gain additional hit points. Each time a character levels up, they can roll their class's hit die and add their Constitution modifier to the result, adding the total to their maximum HP. Alternatively, players can choose to take the average result of their hit die roll (rounded up) for a more consistent HP gain.

While adventuring, characters will likely take damage from enemy attacks, traps, spells, or environmental hazards. This damage is subtracted from their current HP. Healing, whether from spells, potions, or a long rest, can restore HP, but cannot exceed the character's maximum HP.

If a character's HP drops to 0, they fall unconscious and must start making death saving throws—rolls to determine whether they stabilize or perish—unless healed. If a character takes damage equal to or exceeding their maximum HP in a single blow while at 0 HP, they die instantly.

Hit Points are more than a mere measure of physical endurance.


They represent a blend of physical and mental durability, the will to live, and luck. This is why a character can regain hit points from a rest or why a healing spell can help a character regain hit points.

Example in Gameplay

During an encounter, a Fighter with a maximum of 28 HP gets hit by a goblin's attack dealing 7 damage. The fighter's current HP drops to 21. The party's cleric then casts a healing spell on their turn, restoring 6 HP to the fighter, bringing the fighter's current HP up to 27.

Useful for DMs

Understanding hit points is crucial for managing combat encounters. They serve as a gauge for character survivability and can inform how challenging you make your encounters. Remember, a character's hit points can go up and down quite frequently during an adventure due to damage and healing, so it's essential for both the DM and players to keep track of them.

What happens if a character's hit points reach zero?

When a character's hit points reach zero, they fall unconscious and are dying. They must start making death saving throws on their turns to determine whether they stabilize or die.

Can a character have negative hit points?

No, in Dungeons & Dragons 5th edition, a character's hit points cannot go below zero. Instead, they fall unconscious when they hit zero HP.

What happens if a character gets hit while at zero hit points?

If a character at zero hit points takes damage, they automatically fail one death saving throw, or two if the damage is from a critical hit. If they accumulate three failed death saves before stabilizing or being healed, they die.

How does a character regain hit points?

Characters regain hit points through rest (a short rest restores hit points up to a character's hit dice, a long rest restores all hit points), the use of healing potions, or spells such as Cure Wounds or Healing Word.

Do hit points increase as a character levels up?

Yes, when a character levels up, they roll their class's hit die and add their Constitution modifier to the result, then add this to their maximum HP.

How is a character's starting hit points calculated?

A character's starting hit points at first level is the maximum roll of their class's hit die plus their Constitution modifier.

Does a character's hit points reset after a long rest?

Yes, after a long rest, a character regains all lost hit points.

What does temporary hit points mean?

Temporary hit points are a buffer that protect a character's regular hit points. Damage is deducted from temporary hit points first, and any leftover damage carries over to regular hit points. Temporary hit points don't stack—if you get them from multiple sources, you decide which temporary hit points to keep.

Can healing spells or potions raise a character's hit points above their maximum?

No, healing cannot raise a character's hit points above their maximum. Any excess healing is lost.

What is the difference between hit points and hit dice?

Hit points represent the amount of damage a character can take before falling unconscious. Hit dice, on the other hand, are dice rolled to determine how many hit points a character gains when they level up or during a short rest to recover hit points.

HP: A Beginner's Guide

In the world of Dungeons & Dragons, hit points (HP) are the lifeblood of any adventure. They symbolize not only physical health, but also a character's grit, luck, and sheer willpower to survive. Understanding hit points is critical for a Dungeon Master (DM) to guide a balanced, immersive, and engaging game.

At the heart of D&D is combat, a dance of attacks and defences, successes and failures. HP serves as the dance's rhythm, measuring the ebbs and flows of each encounter. Each time a character takes damage, their HP decreases, inching them closer to potential unconsciousness or even death. However, D&D is not simply a brutal game of attrition. It thrives on strategy, heroism, and cunning—the understanding and clever manipulation of HP can lead to thrilling moments of triumph or harrowing brushes with defeat.

As a DM, mastering the HP rules is a fine balancing act. Too little damage may result in unchallenging, monotonous encounters, while too much could frustrate players or prematurely end characters' storylines. Knowing how to scale combat encounters—using monsters' hit points and attack damages appropriate to the party's level—is an art form that enhances the overall game experience.

Furthermore, remember that HP is not just a mechanic but also a narrative tool. Instead of merely announcing numerical damage, enrich your storytelling by describing how the attack affects the character. Did the orc's axe wound the fighter, or did she narrowly dodge, losing a few HP due to the sheer exhaustion of battle?

Lastly, encourage your players to manage their HP effectively. Teach them to strategize—when to push forward and when to retreat for a rest, when to save their healing potions or when to use healing spells. By integrating HP into their tactics, they'll engage more deeply with D&D's combat system, adding another layer of depth to their adventuring.

HP is the pulse of D&D combat—a ticking time bomb, a rallying cry, a glimmer of hope. Mastering it can turn a good campaign into an unforgettable one. So, DMs, wield the power of hit points and let the thrilling dance of battle begin!

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